Sinusitis Nursing Diagnosis Interventions

Sinusitis is inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, which may be due to infection, allergy, or autoimmune issues. Most cases are due to a viral infection and resolve over the course of 10 days. It is a common condition; for example, in the United States more than 24 million cases occur annually.

Sinusitis Nursing Diagnosis Interventions
Nursing Diagnosis for Sinusitis

1 Acute Pain: head, throat, sinus related to inflammation of the nose

Goal : Pain is reduced or lost

Expected outcomes are:
  • Clients express the pain diminished or disappeared
  • Clients do not grimace in pain
1. Assess client's level of pain
R :/ Knowing the client's level of pain in determining further action

2. Explain the causes and effects of pain on the client and family
R :/ With the causes and consequences of pain the client is expected to participate in treatment to reduce pain

3. Teach relaxation techniques and distractions
R :/ The client knows the distraction and relaxation techniques can be practiced so as if in pain

4. Observation of vital signs and client complaints
R :/ Knowing the general state and development of the client's condition.

2. Anxiety related to lack of client knowledge about diseases and medical procedures (sinus irrigation / operation)

Goal: Anxiety is reduced / lost

Expected outcomes are:
  • Clients will describe the level of anxiety and coping patterns.
  • The client knows and understands about his illness and its treatment.
1. Assess client's level of anxiety
R :/ Determining the next action

2. Give comfort and ketentaman on the client:
  • Show empathy (it comes with a touch client)
R :/ Facilitate client's receipt of the information provided

3. Give an explanation to clients about the illness slowly, quietly and use of clear sentences, short easy to understand
R :/ Increase client understanding about the disease and therapies for the disease so that the client more cooperative

4. Get rid of excessive stimulation such as:
  • Place the room quieter client
  • Limit contact with others / other clients are likely to experience anxiety
R :/ By removing the stimulus that will enhance the peace of the client concerned.

Nursing Diagnosis and Interventions for Sinusitis

3. Ineffective Airway Clearance related to the obstruction (nasal secret buildup) secondary to inflammation of the sinuses

Goal: Effective airway, after a secret (seous, purulent) issued

Expected outcomes are:
  • Clients no longer breathe through the mouth
  • Airway back to normal, especially the nose
1. Assess the existing build-secret
R :/ Knowing the severity and subsequent action

2. Observation of vital signs
R :/ Knowing the client's development prior to surgery

3. Collaboration with the medical team for cleaning discharge
R :/ cooperation to eliminate the buildup of secret / problem

Source :

10 Nanda Nursing Diagnosis for Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes facts

  • Diabetes is a chronic condition associated with abnormally high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood.
  • Insulin produced by the pancreas lowers blood glucose.
  • Absence or insufficient production of insulin causes diabetes.
  • The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 (insulin dependent) and type 2 (non-insulin dependent).
  • Symptoms of diabetes include increased urine output, thirst and hunger as well as fatigue.
  • Diabetes is diagnosed by blood sugar (glucose) testing.
  • The major complications of diabetes are both acute and chronic.
    • Acutely: dangerously elevated blood sugar, abnormally low blood sugar due to diabetes medications may occur.
    • Chronically: disease of the blood vessels (both small and large) which can damage the eye, kidneys, nerves, and heart may occur
  • Diabetes treatment depends on the type and severity of the diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is treated with insulin, exercise, and a diabetic diet. Type 2 diabetes is first treated with weight reduction, a diabetic diet, and exercise. When these measures fail to control the elevated blood sugars, oral medications are used. If oral medications are still insufficient, insulin medications are considered.
Source : medicinenet

10 Nursing Diagnosis for Diabetes Mellitus

1. Imbalanced Nutrition: Less/More than Body Requirements

2. Ineffective Tissue Perfusion: Renal, cardiopulmonary, peripheral

3. Impaired Urinary Elimination

4. Disturbed sensory perception: Visual, tactile

5. Activity Intolerance

6. Ineffective Coping

7. Sexual Dysfunction

8. Fear

9. Deficient Knowledge

10. Risk for Impaired Skin Integrity
Source :

Nanda Nursing Intervention for Infection

NANDA: Risk for Infection


Circumstances where an individual is susceptible to the pathogenic and opportunistic agents (viruses, fungi, bacteria, protozoa, or other parasites) from external sources, the sources of exogenous and endogenous.

Expected outcomes are:

Individuals will:
  1. Techniques showed a very careful hand washing.
  2. Free of nosocomial infection during the hospitalization
  3. Demonstrate the ability of the risk factors associated with infection and make the proper precautions to prevent infection.

Nursing Intervention for Risk for Infection:

1. Identification of individuals at risk for nosocomial infection
  • Assessed against the predictor
    • Infection (pre-surgical)
    • Abdominal or thoracic surgery
    • Operating for more than 2 hours
    • Procedures genitouranius
    • Instrumentation (ventilator, suction, catheter, nebulizer, tracheostomy, invasive monitoring tool)
    • Anesthetics

  • Assess the factors that disrupt
    • Age younger than 1 year, or older than 65 years
    • Obesity
    • The conditions of the underlying disease (COPD, diabetes, cardiovascular disease)
    • Drug abuse
    • Nutritional Status
    • Smokers
2. Reduce the organisms enter the body
  • Wash hands carefully
  • Antiseptic techniques
  • Isolation
  • Diagnostic or therapeutic procedures that need
  • Reduction of microorganisms that can be transmitted through the air.
3. Protect the immune-deficient individuals
  • Instruct individuals to request to all visitors and personnel to wash their hands before approaching the individual.
  • Limit visitors when possible
  • Limit of invasive devices (IV, laboratory specimen) to the really need it.
  • Teach individuals and family members for signs and symptoms of infection.
4. Reduce the individual susceptibility to infection
  • Encourage and maintain caloric intake and protein in the diet.
  • Monitor the use or overuse of antimicrobial therapy.
  • Give antimicrobial therapy was prescribed in 15 minutes of scheduled time
  • Minimize the length of hospital stay.
5. Observed for clinical manifestations of infection (eg fever, cloudy urine, purulent drainage)

6. Instruct individuals and families to know the causes, risks of infection and transmission power.

7. Report of infectious diseases.

Source :

Self-Care Deficit - Bathing / Hygiene

Self-Care Deficit - Bathing / Hygiene


Circumstances where individuals have failed to implement or complete ability bathing / hygiene activities.


Lack of ability to bathe themselves (including washing the whole body, combing hair, brushing teeth, doing skin care and nails as well as the use of makeup)
  • Can not or no desire to wash the body or body parts.
  • Can not use the source water.
  • Inability to feel the need for hygiene measures.
Lack of ability to wear his own clothes (including underwear routine or special clothing, not the clothes the night)
  • Failure of the ability to use or release of clothes.
  • Inability to fasten clothing.
  • Inability to dress themselves satisfactorily.
Expected outcomes are:

Individuals will
1. Identifying the love of self-care activities.
2. Demonstrated that optimal hygiene in care after assistance is given.
3. Participate in physical and or verbal self-care activities
  • Carry out the shower activity at its optimal level.
  • Reported satisfaction with the achievements despite the limitations.
  • Connecting a feeling of comfort and satisfaction with the cleanliness of the body.
  • Demonstrate ability to use adaptive assistive devices.
  • Describe the factors that cause of the lack of ability to bathe.

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Nursing Interventions for Self-Care Deficit - Bathing / Hygiene

Nursing Diagnosis and Interventions for Liver Abscess

Nursing Diagnosis for Liver Abscess - Nursing Interventions for Liver Abscess

Liver abscess is a relatively uncommon but life-threatening disorder that occurs when bacteria or protozoa destroy hepatic tissue. The damage produces a cavity, which fills with infectious organisms, liquefied hepatic cells, and leukocytes. Necrotic tissue then walls off the cavity from the rest of the liver.
A liver abscess occurs when bacteria or protozoa destroy hepatic tissue, producing a cavity, which fills with infectious organisms, liquefied liver cells, and leukocytes. Necrotic tissue then walls off the cavity from the rest of the liver. Liver abscess carries a mortality of 10% to 20%, despite treatment. Liver abscess affects both sexes and all age-groups, although it's slightly more prevalent in hospitalized children (because of a high rate of immunosuppression) and in females (most commonly those between ages 40 and 60).

Nursing Diagnosis for Liver Abscess
  1. Impaired Liver Function
  2. Acute pain
  3. Deficient knowledge (diagnosis and treatment)
  4. Imbalanced nutrition: Less than body requirements
  5. Risk for impaired skin integrity
  6. Risk for infection

Nursing Interventions for Liver Abscess

1. Pain Management: Alleviation of pain or a reduction in pain to a level of comfort that is acceptable to the patient. Analgesic Administration: Use of pharmacologic agents to reduce or eliminate pain. Environmental Management: Comfort: Manipulation of the patient’s surroundings for promotion of optimal comfort

2. Teaching: Individual Planning, implementation, and evaluation of a teaching about Liver abscess. Learning Facilitation: Promoting the ability to process and comprehend information. Learning Readiness Enhancement: Improving the ability and willingness to receive information.

3. Nutrition Management: Assisting with or providing a balanced dietary intake of foods and fluids. Weight Gain Assistance: Facilitating gain of body weight

4. Skin Surveillance: Collection and analysis of patient data to maintain skin and mucous membrane integrity. Pressure Management: Minimizing pressure to body parts. Pressure Ulcer Prevention: Prevention of pressure ulcers for a patient at high risk for developing them

5. Infection Protection, Infection Control, Surveillance: Prevention and early detection of infection in a patient at risk. Minimizing the acquisition and transmission of infectious agents. Purposeful and ongoing acquisition, interpretation, and synthesis of patient data for clinical decision making.

Causes of Type 1 Diabetes

The elements that cause diabetes type one includes a large number of possibilities, from the environmental to autoimmune. Type one diabetes is often referred to as juvenile diabetes along with IDDM, and is an acronym for “Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus,” simply because the affected individual will have to be treated by means of insulin injections.

This is the result of injury to most of the beta cells within your pancreas which usually creates insulin. In cases where these cells are destroyed, the pancreas will not be able to manufacture insulin any longer, and as a consequence it is going to have to be given via injections.

Autoimmune Disease

One of the chief reasons that generate type one diabetes is autoimmune. Brought on by autoantibodies damaging most of the 'beta' cells inside of the pancreas, they will likely stop operating. The number of 'beta' cells you might have may likely be normal when born, nevertheless months or maybe years following your birth the formation of autoantibodies will start to annihilate them.

How much time it's going to take for them to be wiped out can vary with every person. At least ninety-five percent of individuals suffering from diabetes type 1 get this affliction by the time they're just twenty five years old. The onset of diabetes type one occurs quickly, it typically requires a couple of days or maybe weeks to finally develop.

The chief trait of type one diabetes is definitely the destruction of over eighty percent of the beta cells inside the pancreas. The pancreas could actually keep working to supply you with insulin in the event that, at the minimum, twenty percent of these beta cells are performing. On the other hand, in the event that the actual number drops down below twenty percent this is the time the individual actually starts to develop the indications of diabetes.


Family genes could also be one of many reasons for type one diabetes, however the connection is not necessarily as strong as with diabetes type 2. The occurrence of diabetes type one found in the two individuals in a pair of identical twins, ranges somewhere within thirty percent and seventy percent which shows that that there can be a probable association to inherited factors.

The chance of getting type one diabetes is ten times greater for people with a 1st degree family member suffering from this particular type of diabetes. In the event that your dad or mom has this type of diabetes, the odds of you and your sisters and brothers getting it is anywhere between five percent to fifteen percent.

Nevertheless, it needs to be mentioned that majority people that acquire diabetes type one don't have any previous record of this condition in their family.

The Environmental Causes

Several environmental variables have likewise been implied as among the reasons behind diabetes type one even though this hasn't been verified. The main factor why it’s really hard to distinguish environmental components, as among the contributing causes, is due to the fact these factors could quite possibly have preceded the emergence of diabetes by years.

A handful of probable environmental factors that cause diabetes may include elements like viruses, or simply a unique protein contained in cow’s milk.

Additional Factors

Conditions that sometimes damage the pancreas, which includes pancreatitis, pancreatic surgery as well as distinct industrial chemical compounds might be factors that cause diabetes. Some inherited disorders, including Klinefelter syndrome, Cushing syndrome plus Huntington’s chorea, might additionally strengthen the likelihood of diabetes.

by: Bill jones

Heart Rate Monitor Stress Test - Get Your Accurate Heart Rate Condition In Real Time

Heart Rate Monitor Stress Test is More Accurate Than Other Methods

Before the development of portable heart rate monitors, manual methods for determining heart rates during performance were the only techniques available. The electronic equipment capable of registering and recording performance data had not been miniaturized and was only used and available to doctors and therapists. Today however it is a different story. The development of heart rate monitors which are portable and lightweight has brought the technology to everyone. The electronic sensors have the ability to record performance data quickly and accurately in a number of situations. To monitor heart rate variability accurately there simply is no better method available today.

Takes Out the Guesswork of Performance Levels

Utilizing the manual methods presented athletes and coaches with a number of problems for obtaining accurate heart rate data. The need to immediately measure the heart’s performance directly following a workout could be a challenge. Delays would of course provide inaccurate data. Some delays were unavoidable; like having to get out of the pool after a swimming workout to measure heart rate. Forgetting to record heart rate data may cause inaccuracies as well. Counting heart beats and calculating maximum heart rate data could be affected by a number of factors not including performance. A Heart rate monitor stress test simply makes recording performance data easier and takes out the guesswork.

Automatically Provides the Information Needed

Manual methods may have been satisfactory for the time but they had serious limitations. For one, they couldn’t record the heart performance during the workout. The information could only be access after the athlete stopped working out. The heart rate monitor can provide valuable performance information during the athlete’s performance which can be used to enhance training routines and targeted objectives. How an athlete’s body is reacting and performing during various phases of a stress test can be important training data when used to adjust training routines. A heart rate monitor stress test can reveal many factors about an athlete’s true fitness level that is not accessible with other calculating methods.

Provides Biometric Feedback that’s Reliable

Many athletes and even coaches use subjective criteria to determine the success of a stress test. They may do this without even realizing it most of the time. But the heart rate monitor is not subjective. The monitor will provide reliable, accurate and objective data about an athlete’s performance during a stress test without bias. Athlete performance may look good and feel good but at the same time be below or above the targeted heart rate zone. Only the reliable data that is provided by the heart rate monitor can reveal what is truly happening inside the athlete’s body before, during and after a performance stress test.

by: Aida Carter

Traveling Nursing Jobs Are an Important Part of Health Care

Nursing is one of the most important jobs in the health care sector. They have a very crucial role because they fill the gap between a patient and a doctor. Nursing career is not easy to start with and many people are not able to meet the qualifications needed thus it has resulted to scarcity of nurses and the demand for this service has grown rapidly. The nation's increasing demand for qualified nurses has resulted to outsourcing nurses from the Asian countries in order to meet the demand.

Various agencies both from the private and public sectors concentrate on recruiting nurses for travelling nurse jobs. Travelling nurses move from one place to another, they work for a short duration of time and then move to another place where there is a need for a nurse. The main difference between travelling nurses and ordinary nurses is that travelling nurses move from one place to the other while ordinary nurses, their employment is permanent. This service is highly needed by Private patients and group practices. They work similarly as other professional nurses. There are various reasons health care professional choose to travel including personal exploration, development and growth of their career.

The qualifications to attain a travelling nursing job are the same with that of a registered nurse. Simple means to attain a nursing registration is to have a pass mark after you complete a program of two years or be a holder of a bachelor's degree in Nursing.

Traveling nursing jobs are an important part of health care because they are flexible at any time, when a hospital experiences a staff crisis they are ready and available to serve there. When employed by a private patient, the traveling nurse will offer a personalized service depending on the demands of the client. These nurses have duties that they perform; collecting blood samples and urine to send for testing, checking and observing the important signs of the clients like pulse and readings of blood pressure. They offer guidance to their patients relating to the tests carried out and to the general health care.

There are duties that a traveling nurse does even with the absence of the doctor. They help their patient to go after the medication as prescribed by the physician and give medicine to the patient as per the chart. They also perform intravenous injections and drips and maintain good communicating with patients and their family members.

To become travelling Nurse good communication skills is an essential factor to consider. This nurse plays an administrative role and communicates with the parents, guardians and all those who are concerned with the patient. With poor communications skills the life of the patient is exposed to risk.

Often nurses dream of traveling to visit many places of the world and get financial stability. Being a good nurse traveler requires flexible outlook, knowing and having what the recruitment agencies need, and be a good financial planner. The demand for nurses is still very high, know what you want and go for it.

Uncover more information on the cheapest Accelerated Nursing Program right now within our thorough online self-help guide to the top accelerated RN programs


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The Three Major Nursing Types in Australia

Australia is one of the top career destinations for nurses and the last few years have seen a huge flow of nurses to Australia from other different parts of the world. Due to the top class life style and work environment, Australia has become one of the hottest career destinations for healthcare professional. Qualified healthcare professionals who have cleared the IELTS exam can apply for a respective job in Australia and before joining any hospital, theyshould undergo nursing bridging programs which help them to adjust to the Australian healthcare system much easily.

Registered Nurse (RN), Nurse Practitioner (NP) and Enrolled Nurses (EN) are the three major categories that are present in Australian healthcare system. These three categories have different roles and different privileges and those coming from other countries should enroll themselves into any of the category as per their skills and talent. Let us have a brief look at these three major Australia healthcare professional categories.

1) Registered Nurse (RN)
A registered nurse is the one who has the appropriate registration and licence to practice nursing in Australia. They are assigned more responsibilities and they enjoy more autonomy in their practice decisions when compare with other nurses. They are also responsible for ensuring and maintaining the work quality and they make this happen through teaching, supervision, competence assessment etc. To become a Registered Nurse, one must hold a Bachelor of Nursing or higher qualification.

2) Nurse Practitioner (NP)
A Nurse Practitioner is also a registered nurse and are authorized to function astronomically and collaboratively in a much more advanced and extended clinical role. They are entitled to use their skills and knowledge to assess and manage clients in the best possible way. In Australia, they are required to be registered by the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency. Most of the them are seen working as the key members of the healthcare team and collaborating with other nurses and various professionals in the healthcare system. They have to work both in the hospitals and in different community settings.

3) Enrolled Nurse (EN)
You can become an Enrolled Nurse or Division 2 Nurse in Australia by completing a Diploma of Nursing or Certificate IV in Nursing at any vocational institute or TAFE. The time frame for this is around 12-18 months and this may vary in different Australian states. Enrolled nurses enjoy many benefits during their job period such as on-going education facility, opportunities to work in the areas of their interest, travel options all over Australia, career satisfaction etc. Due to the shortage of Registered Nurses, the role of Enrolled Nurses has increased in the recent years.

Whether you are having a Diploma of Nursing of Bachelor or Nursing certificate, you have to select wisely the nursing category that you should belong to. It all depends upon your qualification, skills, experience and extra certifications and you should always try to select the best that suits you the most.

The author is an experienced content writer who is currently associated with IHNA, which specializes in offering nurse training programs for nurses in Australia, along with bridging courses for nurses who aspires for a successful health career in Australia.

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Handbook of Nursing Diagnosis

Handbook of Nursing Diagnosis

Book Description

Authored by the foremost authority on NANDA diagnoses, this best-selling handbook is a quick reference to nursing diagnoses and collaborative problems. The book is organized for speedy reference and uses a two-part format: Nursing Diagnoses and Diagnostic Clusters with a collaborative focus. This edition has been revised to incorporate the 2009/2011 NANDA-approved nursing diagnoses.

Every NANDA diagnosis includes listings of associated Nursing Interventions Classifications (NIC) and Nursing Outcomes Classifications (NOC). Other features include Author's Notes sections and icons highlighting considerations for special populations. A laminated card groups common diagnoses by functional health patterns.

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Handbook of Nursing Diagnosis


Mesothelioma is a type of cancer that affects the mesothelium, a membranous lining that surrounds the internal organs. The mesothelium that encloses the lungs is called the pleura; so pleural mesothelioma is the term used to refer to this cancer when it affects the lining of the lungs. The pleura is actually the most common location for this cancer to take hold. This is because the contaminants that cause the disease (usually asbestos fibers) enter the body through the airway and lodge in the lungs. However, it is important to note that pleural mesothelioma is not lung cancer.

The pleura (lining of the lungs) is actually comprised of two parts. It has an inner (visceral) layer which is next to the lung and an outer (parietal) layer that covers the chest wall. The two layers slide over each other as we breath and membranes in the lungs often produce lubricating fluid to make this process easier. When pleural mesothelioma develops it causes the inner and outer layers to become thicker and they then press inwards on the lungs. This can lead to a number of undesirable symptoms which I will discuss below:

1) DIFFICULTY BREATHING:- As the inner and outer layers of the pleura start to push against the lungs it may become difficult for you to breathe. This can then lead to your throat becoming hoarse, coughing, problems swallowing and regular feelings of being out of breath.

2) PAIN IN THE CHEST:- As the layers of the pleura push against the lungs this can cause chest pain. You may also feel pain in your shoulders and arms.

3) PLEURAL EFFUSION:- As I mentioned above the membranes of the lungs produce lubricating fluid which allows the layers of the pleura to easily slide against each other. However, when pleural mesothelioma develops the inner and outer layers become thicker and fluid can become trapped more easily. If fluid does become trapped it is referred to as pleural effusion. Pleural effusion can lead to further chest pain and difficulty breathing but often has no symptoms that you will feel.

Nursing Diagnosis for Depression

Depression is a action that is added of a sad situation, if the depressed person's action to could cause the disruption of their circadian amusing activities again it is alleged as a abasement disorder. Some affection of abasement disorders are animosity of sadness, boundless fatigue afterwards accepted accepted activity, absent absorption and enthusiasm, apathetic bunch, and disruption of beddy-bye patterns. Abasement is one of the above causes of suicide.

Cause of a action of abasement include:

Organo-biological factors due to imbalances of neurotransmitters in the brain, abnormally serotonin

Cerebral factors as cerebral accent load, the appulse of acquirements behavior of a amusing situation

Socio-environmental factors such as accident of spouse, accident of employment, post-disaster, the appulse of accustomed activity situations other.

If at any time you feel any affection of depression, do not be silent. Act anon to advice yourself.

How do I? The afterward accomplish can hopefully advice you.

Be realistic, do not be too idealist.

If you accept a assignment or job to physique up, bisect the tasks and prioritize. Perform tasks that are able to do.

If you accept a problem, do not be active alone. Try the "story" to humans you trust. Typically, this will actualize a activity added adequate and lightweight.

Try to yield allotment in activities that can accomplish your affection happy, such as exercising, watching movies, or participate in amusing activities.

Try to consistently anticipate positive.

Do not hesitate, and ashamed to seek advice from ancestors or friends.

NANDA Abasement Nursing Assessment

A. Depression

a. Subjective data:

Not able to accurate their opinions and apathetic talk. Frequently bidding actual complaints. Felt he was no best useful, was by no means, no purpose in life, activity hopeless and suicidal.

b. Objective data:

Body movements are inhibited, the physique is arced and if sitting in a angled position, facial announcement moody, apathetic amble with the accomplish getting dragged. May sometimes action stupor. Patients assume lazy, tired, no appetite, adversity sleeping and crying. Thought action too late, as if his apperception is empty, broken concentration, had no interest, can not think, do not accept imagination. In patients with depressive psychosis there is a abysmal activity of guilt, no faculty (irrational), delusions of sin, depersonalization, and hallucinations. Sometimes the accommodating rather adverse (hostility), causticity (irritable) and do not like to be disturbed.

2. Maladaptive coping

a. Subjective data: accompaniment of abasement and helplessness, unhappy, hopeless.

b. Objective data: attending sad, irritable, restless, clumsy to ascendancy impulses.

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NANDA Approved Nursing Diagnosis 2012 - 2014

NANDA Nursing Diagnoses 2009-2011 : Definitions and Classification

NANDA Approved Nursing Diagnosis 2007-2008 contains 188 nursing diagnosis, latest NANDA-I Approved Nursing Diagnosis 2009-2011 contains an additional 21 new nursing diagnosis, 9 revisions diagnosis and some of diagnosis are not used again. Total nursing diagnosis at this time is 205 nursing diagnosis.

Nanda I usually revised every 2 years, but this time NANDA I publish a list of NANDA Nursing Diagnosis for period of three years.

NANDA Approved Nursing Diagnosis 2009-2011

for complete list of NANDA Approved Nursing Diagnosis 2012 - 2014 ----> Nursing Diagnoses: Definitions and Classification 2012-14 (NANDA International Nursing Diagnosis)

Nursing Care Plan Acute Pain related to Uterine Fibroids

Nursing Diagnosis Acute Pain related to inflammation due to the addition of mass in the uterus

  • Pain can be reduced or lost
Expected outcomes are:
  • Pain scale (1-10) = 1-3.
  • Respiration = 16-24 beats / minute.
  • Pulse = 60 -100 beats / min.
  • Expression showed no signs of pain and seemed to relax.

1. Observation of a pain scale (1-10)
Rational: Observation of a pain scale is necessary for us to know the level of pain experienced by the client so that we can provide appropriate interventions for clients.

2. Find the area, location, and intensity of pain
Rational: To determine the location of pain, pain in the abdomen may indicate the likelihood of complications

3. Give a sitting position while hugging a pillow or a position in the sense of comfort by the client
Rational: It can provide comfort to the client.

4. Give instruction in relaxation techniques and deep breathing techniques
Rational: relaxation and deep breathing techniques to increase comfort and reduce the level of pain experienced by the client

5. Encourage clients to use a warm compress
Rational: Warm compresses can increase vasodilation of blood vessels at the site of pain so that pain can be reduced.

6. Collaboration in the delivery of analgesics and antiemetics, as indicated when necessary.
Rational: The provision of analgesia is necessary if the client is a pain scale of 7-10, this analgesic increase relaxation, decrease attention to pain, and control the adverse action.

7. Provide information about the use of analgesics that are prescribed or not prescribed
Rational: The specific instructions about the use of drugs, increasing awareness of safe use and side effects.

8. Evaluation of vital signs.
Rational: To determine the condition of clients after the intervention so that it can be done to determine further action.

Source :

Nursing Diagnosis Interventions Pneumonia Care Plan

Pneumonia is the condition that causes inflammation in lungs. Pneumonia is commonly caused by viruses, such as the influenza virus (flu) and adenovirus. Influenza H1N1 (swine flu) can also become a significant cause of pneumonia. During such situations, the lungs inevitably experience build up of fluids. Several micro-organisms cause pneumonia. Pneumonic inflammation of the lungs occurs due to collection of cellular wastes and blood cells within the air sacs within the lungs.

Other viruses, such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), are common causes of pneumonia in young children and infants. Bacteria such asStreptococcus pneumoniae can cause pneumonia, too.

There are many symptoms of pneumonia, and some of them, like a cough or a sore throat, are associated with many other common infections. Often, people get pneumonia after they’ve had an upper respiratory tract infection like a cold.

Symptoms of pneumonia can include: Cough with a yellow or greenish mucus or Phlegm, Fever often with chills and the shakes, Soreness or pain in the chest, worsened by breathing deeply or coughing, Shallow breathing, Shortness of breath, Bloody mucus or phlegm, Headache, Sweating and sometimes clammy skin, Fatigue and weakness, Decreased appetite.

Other symptoms of pneumonia are coughing up blood, vomiting, nausea, joint and muscle pain, getting the chills and having blueness of the skin.
When pneumonia is caused by bacteria, the person tends to become sick quickly and develops a high fever and has difficulty breathing. When it’s caused by a virus, symptoms generally appear more gradually and may be less severe.

Pneumonia diagnosed after a series of x-rays, MRIs and tests done on the mucus or phlegm from the throat. It can also be detected with a blood count test. If there is a high number of white blood cells then that means there is an infection present in the body.
Pneumonia can be treated without hospitalization but severe cases sometimes call for hospitalization.  

Pneumonia home care that involves rest, antibiotics and lots of fluids can help to rid the body of pneumonia. If patients do not heal within a specified amount of time by the doctor then they will have to be admitted into a hospital.

8 Nursing Diagnosis for Pneumonia
  1. Ineffective Airway Clearance
  2. Impaired Gas Exchange
  3. Ineffective Breathing Pattern
  4. Increased Body Temperature
  5. Risk for Infection
  6. Activity Intolerance
  7. Pain
  8. Imbalanced Nutrition Less Than Body Requirements
Nursing Interventions for Pneumonia
1. Maintain patent airway.
2. Adequate oxygenation.
3. Obtain sputum specimens as needed.
4. Control the spread of infection.
5. Give high calorie and high protein diets.
6. Use suction if the patient can’t produce a specimen.
7. Provide a quiet environment.
8. Monitor ABG levels, especially if he’s hypoxic.
9. Assess respiratory status.
10. Auscultate breath sounds at least every 4 hours.
11. Monitor fluid intake and output.
12. Evaluate the effectiveness of administered medications.
13. Explain all procedures to the patient and family.

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