Activity Intolerance related to Imbalance Oxygen Supply - COPD Nursing Diagnosis

COPD Nursing Diagnosis

Activity intolerance
related to imbalance between oxygen supply with demand.

Purpose: Shows the progress at a higher level of activity possible.

Nursing Interventions for Activity Intolerance - COPD:
  1. Assess the individual response to the activity; pulse, blood pressure, breathing.
  2. Measure vital signs immediately after the activity, rest your client for 3 minutes then measuring the vital signs again.
  3. Support the patient in establishing a regular exercise using a treadmill and exercycle, walking or other exercise appropriate, such as walking slowly.
  4. Assess the level of the last patient function and develop training plans based on the status of basic functions.
  5. Suggest consultation with a physical therapist to determine the specific training program on the ability of the patient.
  6. Provide oxygen as represented is required before and during running activity just in case.
  7. Increase activity gradually; a client who was bed rest or long range of motion began to perform at least 2 times a day.
  8. Increase tolerance to the activity by encouraging clients to do the activity more slowly, or a shorter time, with more rest or with a lot of help.
  9. Gradually increase exercise tolerance by increasing the time out of bed every day until 15 minutes 3 ​​times a day.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Nursing Assessment

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) refers to chronic lung disorders that result in blocked air flow in the lungs. The two main COPD disorders are emphysema and chronic bronchitis, the most common causes of respiratory failure. Emphysema occurs when the walls between the lung's air sacs become weakened and collapse. Damage from COPD is usually permanent and irreversible.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Nursing Assessment

The assessment includes information about the symptoms last and previous disease manifestations. Here are some guidelines to get the data question the health history of the disease process:
  1. How long patients have trouble breathing?
  2. Does the activity increase of dyspnea?
  3. How far are limitations on the patient's activity tolerance?
  4. When patients complain of fatigue and shortness of breath most?
  5. Is eating and sleeping habits are affected?
  6. History of smoking?
  7. The drugs used each day?
  8. The drugs used in acute attacks?
  9. What is known about the condition and the patient's illness?

Additional data collected through observation and examination as follows:
  1. Patient's pulse rate and breathing?
  2. Is the same breathing without effort?
  3. Is there a contraction of abdominal muscles during inspiration?
  4. Is there any use of accessory respiratory muscles during breathing?
  5. Barrel chest?
  6. Does seem cyanosis?
  7. Is there a cough?
  8. Is there peripheral edema?
  9. Are the neck veins appear dilated?
  10. What color, amount and consistency of sputum of patients?
  11. How is the status of the patient sensorium?
  12. Is there an increase in stupor? Anxiety?

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Drugs, Society, and Human Behavior

Drugs, Society, and Human Behavior

Designed for the introduction to drugs and substance abuse course as taught in departments of health education, psychology, biology, sociology, and criminal justice, this full-color market-leading text provides the latest information on drug use and its effects on society and human behavior. For over thirty years, instructors and students have relied on it to examine drugs and drug use from a variety of perspectives—in terms of behavioral, pharmacological, historical, social, legal, and clinical points of view.

About the Author
Dr. Carl Hart is an Associate Professor in both the Departments of Psychiatry and Psychology at Columbia University and is also a Research Scientist in the Division of Substance Abuse at the New York State Psychiatric Institute. A major focus of Dr. Hart’s research is to understand the complex interactions between neurobiological and environmental factors that mediate and modulate the actions of drugs of abuse, including drug-taking behavior and cognitive performance. Dr. Hart’s research has been supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse for the past several years. In addition to his substantial research responsibilities, Dr. Hart teaches an undergraduate Drugs and Behavior course and was recently awarded Columbia University's highest teaching award.

Charles Ksir received his bachelor's degree in Psychology from the University of Texas at Austin, and his Ph.D. from Indiana University in Bloomington. Following his postdoctoral training in Neurobiology at the Worcester Foundation in Massachusetts, he began a 34-year career in teaching and research at the University of Wyoming, where he also served in a variety of administrative positions. Now a professor emeritus, he focuses his efforts on teaching and textbook writing. He has taught the psychology course Drugs and Behavior to over three thousand students since 1972, and has received several teaching awards.

After graduating from Cornell University and serving a brief stint in the U.S. Army, Oakley Ray became a full-time student at the University of Pittsburgh, training to be a clinical psychologist. He completed his clinical training and moved to animal research even before he received his Ph.D. Working in the behavioral research laboratory of Larry Stein, he learned all the techniques and technologies of brain stimulation and biochemistry relevant to the expanding field of neuropsychopharmacology. Stein’s laboratory was part of a multidisciplinary research facility so Oakley Ray learned brain anatomy, surgery, biochemistry, and pharmacology. When Larry Stein moved on, Oakley Ray took over the lab, expanded it, and established it as an independent research laboratory. He continued working in Pittsburgh as an Associate Professor at the University of Pittsburgh and at Chatham College while still directing the research laboratory in the Veterans Administration Hospital at Leech Farm Road in Pittsburgh.
Following his move to Nashville to be Professor in Psychology and Pharmacology, and later in Psychiatry, as well as the Chief of the Psychology Program at the Nashville Veteran’s Administration Hospital, he became more involved in human psychopharmacology. He later served as the Executive Secretary of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology and the International College of Neuropsychopharmacology.

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Drugs, Society, and Human Behavior

Ineffective Airway Clearance - Nursing Diagnosis and Interventions for Pneumonia

Pneumonia is a general term that refers to an infection of the lungs, which can be caused by a variety of microorganisms, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites.

Most cases of pneumonia are caused by viruses, including adenoviruses, rhinovirus, influenza virus (flu), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and parainfluenza virus (which causes croup).

Often, pneumonia begins after an upper respiratory tract infection (an infection of the nose and throat), with symptoms of pneumonia beginning after 2 or 3 days of a cold or sore throat.

Nursing Diagnosis for Pneumonia

Ineffective airway clearance related to the tracheal bronchial inflammation, increased sputum production

characterized by:
  • Changes in frequency, depth of respiration
  • Abnormal breath sounds
  • Dyspnea, cyanosis
  • Effective or ineffective cough with / without sputum production.
Effective airway,

with the following criteria:
  • effective cough
  • breath normal
  • Breath sounds clean

Nursing Interventions and Rational - Ineffective Airway Clearance for Pneumonia

Assess the frequency / depth of breathing and chest movement
Rational: tachypnea, shallow breathing and asymmetrical chest movement often occurs because of discomfort.

Auscultation of lung area, note area one time there was a decrease of air flow and breath sounds
Rational: decrease in blood flow occurred in the area of ​​consolidation with fluid.

Let the effective coughing techniques
Rational: cough is a natural airway clearance mechanisms to maintain a patent airway.

Suction as indicated
Rational: to stimulate coughing or clearing the airway mechanical voice on the factors that are not able to perform effectively as a cough or a decreased level of consciousness.

Give fluids at least
Rational: liquids (especially warm) mobilizing and removing secretions

Collaboration with physicians for drug delivery as indicated: mukolitik, ex.
Rational: a tool to reduce the mobilization of secretions with bronchial spasms, analgesic given to improve the cough by reducing the discomfort but should be used carefully, because it can reduce cough effort / suppress breathing.

Typhoid Fever Symptoms and Treatment

What are the symptoms of typhoid fever?

The incubation period is usually one to two weeks, and the duration of the illness is about four to six weeks. The patient experiences
  • poor appetite;
  • abdominal pain;
  • headaches;
  • generalized aches and pains;
  • fever, often up to 104 F;
  • lethargy (usually only if untreated);
  • intestinal bleeding or perforation (after two to three weeks of the disease);
  • diarrhea or constipation.
People with typhoid fever usually have a sustained fever as high as 103 F-104 F (39 C-40 C).

Chest congestion develops in many patients, and abdominal pain and discomfort are common. The fever becomes constant. Improvement occurs in the third and fourth week in those without complications. About 10% of patients have recurrent symptoms (relapse) after feeling better for one to two weeks. Relapses are actually more common in individuals treated with antibiotics.

What is the treatment for typhoid fever, and what is the prognosis?

Typhoid fever is treated with antibiotics that kill the Salmonella bacteria. Prior to the use of antibiotics, the fatality rate was 20%. Death occurred from overwhelming infection, pneumonia, intestinal bleeding, or intestinal perforation. With antibiotics and supportive care, mortality has been reduced to 1%-2%. With appropriate antibiotic therapy, there is usually improvement within one to two days and recovery within seven to 10 days.

Several antibiotics are effective for the treatment of typhoid fever. Chloramphenicol was the original drug of choice for many years. Because of rare serious side effects, chloramphenicol has been replaced by other effective antibiotics. The choice of antibiotics needs to be guided by identifying the geographic region where the organism was acquired and the results of cultures once available. (Certain strains from South America show a significant resistance to some antibiotics.) Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) is the most frequently used drug in the U.S. for nonpregnant patients. Ceftriaxone (Rocephin), an intramuscular injection medication, is an alternative for pregnant patients. Ampicillin (Omnipen, Polycillin, Principen) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim, Septra) are frequently prescribed antibiotics although resistance has been reported in recent years. If relapses occur, patients are retreated with antibiotics.

The carrier state, which occurs in 3%-5% of those infected, can be treated with prolonged antibiotics. Often, removal of the gallbladder, the site of chronic infection, will cure the carrier state.

Source :

Nursing Diagnosis for Glaucoma


is an eye disorder in which the optic nerve suffers damage, permanently damaging vision in the affected eye(s) and progressing to complete blindness if untreated. It is often, but not always, associated with increased pressure of the fluid in the eye (aqueous humour). The term 'ocular hypertension' is used for cases having constantly raised intraocular pressure (IOP) without any associated optic nerve damage. Conversely, the term 'normal' or 'low tension glaucoma' is suggested for the typical visual field defects when associated with a normal or low IOP.

The nerve damage involves loss of retinal ganglion cells in a characteristic pattern. There are many different subtypes of glaucoma, but they can all be considered a type of optic neuropathy. Raised intraocular pressure is a significant risk factor for developing glaucoma (above 21 mmHg or 2.8 kPa). One person may develop nerve damage at a relatively low pressure, while another person may have high eye pressure for years and yet never develop damage. Untreated glaucoma leads to permanent damage of the optic nerve and resultant visual field loss, which can progress to blindness.

Glaucoma Nursing Diagnosis

Nursing Diagnosis for Glaucoma



Nursing Interventions for Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

Pain Management Alleviation of pain or a reduction in pain to a level of comfort that is acceptable to the patient. Analgesic Administration Use of pharmacologic agents to reduce or eliminate pain. Environmental Management Comfort Manipulation of the patient’s surroundings forpromotion of optimal comfort

Teaching the patient of a teaching program about UTIs, how to prevent recurrent lower UTIs, and therapy.

Learning Facilitation: Promoting the ability to process and comprehend information. Learning Readiness Enhancement: Improving the ability and willingness to receive information

Sleep Enhancement to Facilitation of regular sleep/wake cycles. Simple Relaxation Therapy Use of techniques to encourage and elicit relaxation for the purpose of decreasing undesirable signs and symptoms such as pain, muscle tension, or anxiety. Environmental Management Manipulation of the patient’s surroundings for therapeutic benefit

Urinary Elimination Management Maintenance of an optimum urinary elimination pattern. Urinary Catheterization Insertion of a catheter into the bladder for temporary or permanent drainage of urine. Perineal Care Maintenance of perineal skin integrity and relief of perineal discomfort

Infection Protection to Prevention and early detection of infection in a patient at risk. Infection Control Minimizing the acquisition and transmission of infectious agents. Surveillance Purposeful and ongoing acquisition, interpretation, and synthesis of patient data for clinical decision making

Risk Identification Analysis of potential risk factors, determination of health risks, and prioritization of risk reduction strategies for an individual or group. Purposeful and ongoing collection and analysis of information about the patient and the environment for use in promoting and maintaining patient safety

Sexual Counseling Use of an interactive helping process focusing on the need to make adjustments to sexual practice or to coping with a sexual event/disorder. Teaching/Assisting individuals to understand physical and psychosocial dimensions of sexual growth and development.

Nanda Nursing Diagnosis for Schizophrenia


Schizophrenia is a chronic, severe, and disabling brain disorder that has affected people throughout history. About 1 percent of Americans have this illness.

People with the disorder may hear voices other people don’t hear. They may believe other people are reading their minds, controlling their thoughts, or plotting to harm them. This can terrify people with the illness and make them withdrawn or extremely agitated.

People with schizophrenia may not make sense when they talk. They may sit for hours without moving or talking. Sometimes people with schizophrenia seem perfectly fine until they talk about what they are really thinking.

Nursing Diagnosis For Schizophrenia

Bathing or hygiene self-care deficit
Disabled family coping
Disturbed body image
Disturbed personal identity
Disturbed sensory perception (auditory, visual, kinesthetic)
Disturbed sleep pattern
Disturbed thought processes
Dressing or grooming self-care deficit
Imbalanced nutrition: Less than body requirements
Impaired home maintenance
Impaired social interaction
Impaired verbal communication
Ineffective coping
Ineffective role performance
Risk for injury
Risk for other-directed violence
Risk for self-directed violence
Social isolation

Nursing Diagnosis For Schizophrenia

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