Foods to Avoid During Pregnancy

The importance of eating well-balanced meals cannot be over-emphasized in the life of a pregnant woman.

Eating a well balanced diet does not have to put a hole in the pocket. It just means taking the essential nutrients of carbohydrates, vitamins, proteins and minerals in the right proportions.

Eat the right foods and you can enjoy the many benefits of good health, including confidence in knowing that you're providing the absolute best for your baby.

(1) Raw Eggs -

Try to avoid eating raw eggs or any raw-egg containing foods because of bacteria causing food poisoning known as salmonella.

This health condition associated with diseases like typhoid fever and gastroenteritis.

Pasteurized eggs are better in food recipe than the unpasteurized.

(2) Raw Meat -

All uncooked and rare beef, pork, chicken meat or even sea foods should be steer clear.

All these foods can expose you and your baby to salmonella; coli form bacteria, brucellosis and all kinds of dangerous micro-organisms.

(3) Deli Meat -

Avoid eating deli meats known to be contaminated with listeria which may cause miscarriage and sometimes, premature birth.

Avoid unpasteurized milk, refrigerated pates and meat spreads.

(4) Alcohol -

There is no level or amount of alcohol that is good or safe for pregnancy.

There should be a total abstinence from alcohol even at post-parturition.

Alcohol consumption at pregnancy can result into child abnormalities and defects.

(5) Fish like king mackerel, shark, swordfish and tile fish are rich in mercury.

Mercury consumption at pregnancy has been associated with brain damage and developmental delays in babies.

Best Acne Treatment – On the Basis of Medical

However, these pills are one of the Best Acne Treatment, although it has some side effects so it’s advisory to take such medication only with doctor’s prescription.

Best Acne Treatment on medical basis. By the dermatologist is prescribed to the appropriate type of acne. Often, a patient prescribed a set of pills, both internal and external use.

Regardless of the chosen method of treatment, the results pursued treatment, will only be achieved after three - four weeks. It should also be remembered that the treatment of neglected forms of acne, its duration will be much larger, and the first results will only be felt after six months.

One of the best acne treatment on medical basis drug used to treat acne, are synthetic retinoid - derivatives of retinoic acid. These substances have many useful properties of vitamin A; they help regulate production of sebum, thereby affecting its quality.

Another best Acne treatment, which is used in order to chalet acne is benzyl peroxide and azelaic acid. If the patient is contraindicated for these pills, you may appoint antibacterial means, or antibiotics such as erythromycin.

Best acne treatment on medical basis used anti-androgenic pills, which help stabilize the allocation of male hormones.

Women are also prescribed hormonal contraceptives. This achieves two important facts: First, there is exclusion of the possibility of unwanted pregnancy, and secondly, is receiving treatment and prevention of acne.

In such cases, the use of the pill should be appointed gynecologist.

Anxiety Relief Tips

1. Identify the "trigger" that causes your anxiety - It could have been an unexpected expense or even an injury in the family. If this is the case, you can respond productively to this situation to take some pressure off of yourself.

2. Take a relaxing hot bath - Add some music, and a glass of your favorite beverage. This is the perfect way to forget about everything for the one hour that you spend in the bath tub. Taking a nice hot bath can also increase levels of calmness, hence decreasing the chances we are likely to be stressed.

3. Leave town for the weekend - Take the whole week off of work if you can! This is also another way to take your mind off of things for a few days. Don't bring your cell phone either, bringing it can be a reminder for all your unfinished tasks. Your tasks can wait.

4. Get a massage - If you have a partner, get a massage from him/her. Getting a massage can be very relaxing and intimate between you and your partner. However it is also quite addictive, although that isn't always a bad thing.

5. Deep breathing - This is the single most used technique in the world for relieving anxiety. It combats feelings of stress and invigorates the mind/body.

6. Meditation - This is a popular method, because it works. It helps to clear your mind and creates a quiet happy place where you can focus on your thoughts and use this time to sort them out.

7. Spend a full week away from the television - This may be a hard one for many, but it is definitely something that can be done. Television fills the mind with negativity, and gives you a distorted reality, showing you everything in the world that is associated with negative thoughts. Watching things like murders, violence, war, and famines does you no good and certainly does not help to relieve anxiety!

Anxiety is something that nobody should constantly suffer from. With active cooperation and self involvement, using these tips you can help yourself to become stress-free!

Impaired Gas Exchange - Heart Failure

Impaired Gas Exchange related to pulmonary congestion secondary change in alveolar capillary membrane and fluid retention interstisiil.

Maintain adequate ventilation and oxygenation in

Action :
  • Assess the respiratory work (frequency, rhythm, sound and depth)
  • Provide additional Oxygenation 6 liters / minute
  • Monitor saturation (oximetry) PH, BE, HCO3
  • Correction of acid-base balance
  • Give a position that allows clients improve lung expansion. (Semi-Fowler)
  • Prevent atelectasis by exercising effective coughing and deep breathing
  • Perform fluid balance
  • Limit fluid intake
  • Eavluasi radiographic pulmonary congestion through

Rational :
  • To determine the effectiveness of gas exchange function.
  • To increase the concentration of oxygen in the gas exchange process.
  • To determine the level of oxygenation in tissues as a result of the adequacy of gas exchange process.
  • Prevent acidosis which can aggravate respiratory function.
  • Enhance lung expansion
  • Heavy congestion will worsen perukaran process gas so the impact on the onset of hypoxia.
  • Increases contractility of heart muscle that can decimate Odem thus prevents the onset of gas exchange impairment.
Impaired Gas Exchange - Heart Failure

Read More :

Nursing Care Plan for Cardiac Decompensation

Keeping Tabs on your Blood Glucose Levels

Your body is a very complicated machine. In order for you to feel your best, all of your various systems must be functioning in a fairly normal range. When something goes wrong with your circulatory system, your lungs, kidneys or any other vital component, your body will be put under some stress. You may have very noticeable symptoms or you may not even be aware that there is a problem.

One such problem that sometimes is misdiagnosed or goes undetected is high blood sugar levels. In most normal people, the body produces the proper amount of insulin to regulate your sugar or blood glucose levels. When your body does not produce enough insulin or can not break down sugars, you may be suffering from diabetes. Undiagnosed diabetes can be one of the most destructive diseases out there. The good news is that there are ways to manage and even reverse the effects of Type II or Adult Onset Diabetes.

So, what is a normal blood sugar range? Blood glucose is measured in mg/dl. You should measure your blood sugar when fasting. While there is no exact perfect number, an acceptable or good range is between 90-130 mg/dl for adults. For young children, under 12, the range is a bit broader, from approximately 90-180 mg/dl.

If your blood glucose levels are consistently well above or well below the acceptable range, most people will not feel very well. If your blood sugar is too low (below 70), you may feel dizzy, thirsty and you can have long term problems with such things as circulation, stroke or heart disease. High sugar levels (200 and up) can make you sick to your stomach, sweat profusely, become incoherent and also damage your other organs.

Most people with early stage Type II Diabetes can control the problem by losing weight and eating a better diet. Too many carbohydrates and refined sugars are a major cause of concern. One should try to eat vegetables, fruit, whole grains and nuts. Many studies have shown a Mediterranean Diet to be a very effective diet for those needing to control blood sugar levels. In addition to eating right, exercise is also very important. If you can not control your sugar with diet and exercise, you may need to take insulin or other prescription drugs to manage your diabetes and glucose levels.

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Routine Chiropractic Care Including Applied Kinesiology Contributes To Improving Wellness

Health is wealth is what they always say. Indeed, health is certainly one of the things where we must give more attention. When you are ill, life can come to an idle. An irresponsible way of life and negligence to health similar aspects will take a heavy toll with your physical health in the end. There has been a build up with the variety of diseases different from the past. The rise in the high demand for NYC Chiropractors adds to the statement of this fact. Especially, in a usual urban life where everyone is on the run, even having one meal is difficult. To heighten the issue several junk food outlets have mushroomed in the city, appropriate to people who want things instantaneously.

The NYC Chiropractor speaks at length about a number of fascinating things. Sometimes, the truths that the chiropractor tells might be dreadful news flash for you. Frequently, mindlessly and due to ignorance, people decide on a poor lifestyle, which little will they realize will affect them in the future. Frequent sickness and obesity are a few physical signs, which wake you up to work on your health. The two best means to gain perfect health and wellness in mind and body is by dieting and exercising consistently. The NYC Chiropractor will always guarantee for such basic solutions.

Though diet plans and exercise may might seem to be appealing and hopeful, unless of course you are not swayed and unwavering, no modifications could be observed. Dieting demands abstaining from a particular kind of foods calls for discipline. If you are powerless to confine yourselves within these policies, then no change will be visible. The NYC Chiropractors who are certified in Applied Kinesiology are the best resources who could help you with this. They will guide you and present you with helpful tips that would direct you towards your objective. It might not be an overstatement to say that integrating chiropractic care as a vital aspect in your life will keep every attainable illness at bay.

Skilled NYC Chiropractors say that your musculoskeletal systems require regular chiropractic care to keep a good health. You would not need to return to your sick bed with severe headaches or excruciating pains. Every muscles of your body would be strengthened and this way you would be more immune to any aches in your joints. One main hindrance is people's attitudes. The vast majority of them start drawing conclusions on their own with the limited knowledge they have. They become their own doctors and deal with their body themselves. Although at times, it may work in a way, typically it leads to serious repercussions. Perhaps even the whiplash, a typical neck injury, can leave behind serious injuries, especially in the brain. Therefore, it is often recommend that you meet the NYC Chiropractor when met up with an accident.

According to the leading NYC Chiropractors, integrated nutrition is a wonderful way towards sustaining a good health. Intricate care should be obtained when it comes to intake of food. If you might like to take expert help in this matter, preferably a NYC Chiropractor will do justice. Intensive counseling is available with the chiropractors at affordable prices.

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Pain Management: Natural Ways to Ease Your Pain

People with chronic pain are always looking for ways to manage or ease their pain in safer and more natural ways. Both over-the-counter and prescription pain medication are starting to be unpopular choices among those who are suffering from chronic pain. This is due to the possibilities of getting addicted to pain medications because of long-term use. People have also grown wary about the side effects of over-the-counter medications such as damage to the liver, stomach bleeding and ulcers. The current trend in pain management is avoiding taking too much pain medication and engaging instead in activities and alternative procedures which are also known to ease and reduce pain but without the ugly side effects. This shift to more harmless and natural ways of managing pain are even encouraged by pain management specialists.

This is why pain management clinics now offer alternative options in handling pain. Among the most popular are deep-tissue massages, chiropractic, regular exercise and herbal and dietary supplements. All these options are universally and widely accepted because of the health benefits that they provide. Even if they do not necessarily cure or treat pain instantly, no one doubts their long-term positive effects on the body. Best of all, these pain management options have no negative or harmful side effects.

Massages have been known to relax the body and treat common illnesses and pains. A regular massage, especially a deep-tissue massage, can stimulate pressure points in muscles and tissues. Applying moderate pressure to these points can greatly reduce or prevent the sensation of pain in that area. This is also the same concept used in chiropractic and yoga. Stimulating the right points using moderate pressure seems to be the key which is why it is important to make sure that your therapist or chiropractor is well-trained.

No one can argue about the benefits that one gets out of regular exercise. All persons, whether or not in pain, should regularly exercise to stay fit, to improve their health or to remedy certain diseases and conditions. Exercise resolves a whole range of illnesses and conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, sleeping disorders and arthritis, among others. Many if not most of these ailments cause chronic pain. It is a known fact that people who exercise more are less likely to experience or suffer from chronic pain.

Another alternative to pain medications is the taking of herbal and dietary supplements. This pain management option is slowly gaining popularity also because of other health benefits that are provided by these supplements. Pain management specialists and most doctors have admitted to the usefulness and effectiveness of these supplements in restoring and maintaining balance and order in the body. They should not, however, be mistaken for cure or treatment. They aid the body by replenishing nutrients and repairing damage. The process though takes several weeks or even months before anyone can start to see any sign of improvement. Others who are not too keen on waiting for results prefer to revert to over-the-counter pain medications.

Pain Management ~ How Our Mind Affects Our Experience

Animals are amazing teachers. I'm a 'critter lover' to the core, and always have been. So it's not surprising that I've had lots of them in my life. It's also not surprising that I've had my share of injuries, ailments, and accidents to deal with. The most recent was about a year ago, when I rescued a dog that was nearly dead. He had the most horrible infection in his paw, that had traveled up his leg and was spreading through his body. He was in terrible shape, so much that the Doc wasn't really sure if we were going to be able to 'fix' it. So, we went through the usual course of tests, etc., and he fixed us up with meds to help eradicate the infection. My job was to soak, clean and dress the wound on his paw, and administer the meds twice daily.

The dog, whose name is Buddy, was the most patient, trusting soul I'd ever had to doctor. Every day, for more than 2 months, I'd unwrap the paw, soak it in a tub of warm water and salts, then dry it off, put some goop on it and rewrap. Buddy never moved an inch. He'd lie there, so patiently, and let me do what I had to do. My cat would always sit right beside him, leaning up against some part of his body, while I talked to him and did my 'job'.

The thing I noticed throughout was that he never showed any signs of mental distress. He didn't whine or cringe or shy away from me. And he most certainly didn't try to avoid the task. To me, it felt as if he knew that I was trying to help him heal and he was grateful for it. No agonizing over the process. No stressing out. Just plain old trust and patience.

By the time he'd healed, I had come to understand that the difference between him and me was that the mental part of the pain was absent. He didn't increase his pain by thinking about his ailments. He didn't do things that would aggravate the situation. He simply allowed me to attend to him and rested a lot. He slept, and ate, and eventually began playing with all the toys I had for him. Pretty soon, he was good as new. What could have been a life-ending infection turned out to be completely eliminated with love and attention.

Humans? Well, we don't do it that way. We may have pain or illness or dis-ease, and we focus on it so much, we ultimately increase the discomfort for all the thinking about it. We aren't moving toward wellness at all. We're increasing and prolonging the process because of our psychological focus on the malady. In other words, we think ourselves into the pain, and stay there. How dumb is that?

If there's anything I've learned from all this, it is that the only way to move past pain and into wellness is to release the psychological focus and turn that focus toward the vision of wellness. As simple as this sounds, it's not as easy to do (for some). We must learn to let go of the mental aspects of our maladies and settle into the peaceful place of wellness. We must take time, every single day, to lie still and quiet the mind. We must 'see' ourselves well in order to BE well. Staying fixated on the 'issue' is like ripping the stitches out of a gash every time you look at it. Is it going to heal? Not likely. But, using that same analogy, consider how magnificent the body really is. You cut yourself or break a bone or bump your head really hard. All you have to do is clean out the cut, or set the bone, or ice the bump and then....let the body do it's job. Presto. All better. Yes?

And so it is with pain. Rather than reaching for the bottle of pain killers, we could lie still, breathe deeply and relax into it. It doesn't take long at all for the pain to diminish (and even disappear). In fact, it takes less time to diminish pain with meditation than it does with any pill. I know. I've been there. Unless you've got liquid Demerol and a needle to inject it into your bloodstream, it's going to take a while for the meds to take affect. Doesn't it make sense to use your own 'meds'?

Let go of the psychological aspects of your malady. Let go of the fear and the doubt and the worry. Just relax and breathe. Relax and breathe. Your body has trillions of cells with their own individual consciousness. Those cells know what to do. All YOU have to do is LET THEM do their job. Relax. Breathe. Let go.

The Most Important Nutrients for Women

With all the fad diets targeted at women, healthy eating has become a perplexed concept. This is because the diets confuse what nutritious eating really means. The following are the most important nutrients for women's health.


Women need an adequate amount of calcium for breast and bone health. Osteoporosis is common in women because they typically do not get enough calcium. The best way to get calcium, and all nutrients for that matter, is through the food that is consumed. Low-fat and low-sugar dairy products, such as milk (or soy milk), yogurt (namely Greek yogurt), and cheese are all high in calcium. Women should also make sure they take a multivitamin daily that has a high percentage of calcium, especially if they do not eat and drink dairy foods every day.

Pure Water

Drinking lots of water every day is recommended for several reasons. For one, it is hydrating, which keeps people alive and healthy. It also flushes toxins out of the body, which prevents sicknesses and encourages well-being. It is theorized that it also prevents types of cancer, such as breast cancer. Pure water is the best, and either spring or filtered water will suffice. When pure water is consumed, the body gets what it needs in the exact form it needs it in, and that is best for bodily functions. More activity and/or a larger body require more water.

Complex Carbohydrates

Complex carbohydrates provide the most vitamins and fiber, satisfy hunger for the longest length of time, and are low in calories. Vegetables and whole grains are the best sources of complex carbohydrates. As far as vegetables, green - and especially, leafy - vegetables are the most beneficial. With grains, whole wheat is the most nutritious. Complex carbohydrates are filling and satisfying, because the body is getting substantial nutrients, so it stops sending signals to the brain that it is hungry. This is good for weight management, which prevents heart disease and other conditions.

Protein and Iron

Women naturally have less muscle mass than men, so in order to preserve their muscle, enough protein must be consumed. The best sources are fish, chicken, pork, eggs, nuts, beans, and tofu. Vegetarians must put extra effort into getting sufficient protein in their diet. Additionally, meat has a large amount of iron in it, which is especially important during menstruation.

Those are the most vital nutrients to include in a woman's diet. Although there are others, those four are the most significant and important. Eating and drinking nutritiously will guarantee a healthy body and mind.

DPL - Deep Penetrating LED Light Therapy System

DPL - Deep Penetrating LED Light Therapy System

by The Wright Stuff

DPL - Deep Penetrating LED Light Therapy System

Product Description

Color: Black
LED Technologies DPL, Deep Penetrating LED Light Therapy System, provides a proprietary light wave design that penetrates deep into the skin to erase the appearance of aging, fine lines, wrinkles, enlarged pores, and crow's feet.Deep Penetrating Light Therapy is an affordable, natural, and healthy way to look younger without surgery, lasers, peels or injections.The DPL System can also aid wound healing and pain relief for sore, aching joints. Efficiently treat minor muscle and joint aches, minor sprains, minor back pain, muscle spasms and minor pain and stiffness associated with arthritis.An easily adjustable, strapping system helps you place one or both panels almost anywhere on your body allowing you to comfortably relieve pain and stiffness while relaxing, reading or watching TV.Each DPL Deep Penetrating Light Therapy System includes two removable LED panels, a stand, and both quick start and user guides to help you get your treatment started. Most users begin to see and feel results after a few 9 minute treatments, but for full results, it is recommended you use the DPL Light Therapy System for approximately 10 weeks. DPL has been shown to work on all skin types with a 90 percent success rate. For pain relief applications, the DPL Deep Penetrating Light Therapy System can be used on any part of the body.DPL - Deep Penetrating LED Light Therapy System Features:Non-Invasive Approach To Anti-Aging and Pain Management.Minimizes the appearance of fine lines a

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Chiropractic Massage Treatment Table in Blue

Chiropractic Massage Treatment Table in Blue

by Master Massage

Chiropractic Massage Treatment Table in Blue

Product Description

46668 Features: -Chiropractic massage treatment table. -Color: Blue. -Includes ergonomic dream 6-way adjustable face cradle, matched pillow with a layer for memory foam, alternate solid head rest, adjustable and removable arm rest, adjustable and removable forearm shelves at either end of table for guaranteed comfort, paper roll holder. -Steel frame. -Positioning capability. -Height can be effortlessly adjusted from 17'' to 36'' with the touch of a button, 4-piece back and knee lift sections optimize the client's position for best results. -Deluxe size 30'' and 2.5'' thick small cell foam support largest clients comfortably and safely. -6-Way adjustable face cradle, ergonomically designed face port, alternate solid head rest and removable arm rests, brings unlimited possibilities to your practices. -UL listed motors. -Ships fully assembled. -CFC-free, oil and waterproof upholstery with strong denim-like reinforcement backing for extra durability. -Leg pads are screw jack adjustable for perfect leveling. -Ergonomically designed built-in face port. -ADA Compliant. -Four powered adjustable sections. -2.5'' Exclusive small cell foam. -2 Years warranty. Specifications: -Tilt top section: 30'' x 26'', raises up to 45 degrees, built-in face port. -Knee lift section: 30'' x 19'', raises up to 30 degrees. -Weight capacity: 800 lbs. -Dimensions: 17''-36'' H x 30'' W x 72''-84'' D.

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Master Massage 32" Titan Lx - Perfect for Large Clients!

by Master

Product Description

Made with your Larger Clients in Mind! Widest table on the Market! Solid Ash (Baseball Bat Wood) Construction! The Gibraltar Massage Table by Master® is about revolutionary size and strength! At 32" wide with oversized solid Ash Wood legs and DOUBLE THICKNESS bed it's weight capacity is 3,200 lb.! The cushion is 3" of thick Small CellTM foam with a generous layer of Memory Foam. The Gibraltar Massage Table is NOT light but IS wildly strong AND SUPER comfortable for all clients. At 55 lb, the Gibraltar is 'foldable and not so "portable", but is the STRONGEST and MOST COMFORTABLE table made for ANY client. Other features are the soft but super tough Italia upholstery, our famous "Ergonomic Dream Adjustable Face Cradle", a Comfort Bolster, a strong and comfortable armrest shelf, the world's best 2-pocket carrying case and all of the Master® construction features. The Gibraltar is without question the strongest, most comfortable table in the world. If these things are important to you then this is your table PACKAGE INCLUDES: FREE Ergonomic Dream adjustable face cradle with memory foam face pillow FREE Oversized arm shelf that is fully adjustable for guaranteed comfort FREE Professional 2-pocket carrying case with adjustable shoulder strap, cross-body carrying handles and outside storage compartments FREE Comfort bolster for additional support FREE 4 CD set of soothing massage music FREE 75 of our soft and disposable face pillow covers.

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Impaired physical mobility for Stroke

Nursing Diagnosis for Stroke

Impaired physical mobility related to neuromuscular damage, weakness, hemiparese
Goal :
  • The patient demonstrated active mobilization
Expected outcomes :
  • No contractures or foot drop
  • Improved muscle contraction
  • Gradual mobilization
Nursing Interventions Impaired physical mobility for Stroke
  • Monitor the client’s level of ability to mobilize
  • Monitor muscle strength
  • Change position every 2 hours
  • Trochanter roll pairs in the weak areas
  • Perform passive or active ROM within your means and if vital signs stable
  • Involve families in mobilizing the client
  • Collaboration: physiotherapy

Nursing Diagnosis for Heart Failure

Nursing Diagnosis for Heart Failure

Ineffective airway clearance for Stroke

Ineffective airway clearance related to the buildup of sputum (due to weakness, loss of cough reflex)


* Patients are able to maintain a patent airway

Expected outcomes:

* Vesicular breath sounds
* Normal respiratory rate
* No signs of cyanosis and pallor
* No sputum

Nursing Interventions Ineffective airway clearance for Stroke

* Auscultation of breath sounds
* Measure vital signs
* Give the semi-Fowler position as needed (do not conflict with other nursing problems)
* Perform suction mucus and plug the OPA if decreased consciousness
* When it is possible to do chest physiotherapy and breathing exercises
* Collaboration:
o Oxygen delivery
o Laboratory: Analysis of blood gases, complete blood etc.
o Giving medication as needed.

Imbalanced Nutrition: Less Than Body Requirements Nursing Diagnosis for Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Imbalanced Nutrition: Less Than Body Requirements related to :

  • Weakness
  • Frequent cough / sputum production
  • Anorexia
  • Insufficiency of financial resources

Expected outcomes :

  • Showed an increase in body weight
  • Shows changes in behavior / lifestyle to improve / maintain the right weight

Nursing Interventions Imbalanced Nutrition: Less Than BodyRequirements for Pulmonary Tuberculosis

  • Record the patient’s nutritional status on admission, record theskin turgor, weight loss, oral mucosal integrity, the ability to swallow, a history of nausea / vomiting or diarrhea
  • Make sure the patient’s usual diet
  • Supervise the input and expenditure and weight periodically
  • Investigate anorexia, nausea, vomiting and note a possible relationship with drugs
  • Encourage and provide frequent rest periods.
  • Provide oral care before and after the act of breathing.
  • Encourage small and frequent meals with foods high in proteinand karbohodrat.
  • Encourage the person nearest to bring food from home.
  • Collaboration dietitian to determine the composition of the diet.
  • Consult with respiratory therapy to the treatment schedule 1-2 hours before and after meals.
  • Supervise laboratory examination
  • Collaboration of antipyretic therapy

Nanda Nursing Diagnosis Hepatitis - Impaired skin integrity

Impaired skin integrity related to pruritis
Expected outcome
  • Demonstrates improved skin integrity-intake skin with no evidence of excoriation for infection, decrease scrathing, no prurutis.
Nursing Intervention Impaired Skin Integrity for Hepatitis
  • Use starch or baking soda baths, soothing lotions such as calamine.
  • Administer cholestyramin (questran) to promote fecal excretion of bile salts to decrease itching .
  • Administer antihistamines, transquilizers, and sedatives if prescribed.
  • Assist the patient to divent the patien in reducing the strong tendency to scrach his skin :
    • encourage activities to divent the patient attention
    • keep nails trimmed and clean
    • Avoid excessive top bleeding
    • Give sooting massage, particular at night in prepering the patient for sleep, since this is a time when he is specially likely to scrach.
    • Provide the client with gloves to use at night if the patient scratches during sleep.

An Electronic Vital Signs Monitor

An electronic vital signs monitor allows you to track a patient's vital signs continually, without having to reapply a blood pressure cuff each time. In addition, the patient won't need an invasive arterial line to gather similar data.
Some automated vital signs monitors are lightweight and battery-operated and can be attached to an I.V. pole for continual monitoring, even during patient transfers. Newer models can also display patient temperature and pulse oximetry as well as blood pressure. A built in printer is also available on certain models. Make sure that you know the capacity of the monitor's battery, and plug the machine in whenever possible to keep it charged.
Before using any monitor, check its accuracy. Determine the patient's pulse rate and blood pressure manually, using the same arm you'll use for the monitor cuff. Compare your results when you get initial readings from the monitor. If the results differ, call your supply department or the manufacturer's representative.
Preparing the device
  • Explain the procedure to the patient. Describe the alarm system so he won't be frightened if it's triggered.
  • Make sure that the power switch is off. Then plug the monitor into a properly grounded wall outlet. Secure the dual air hose to the front of the monitor.
  • Connect the pressure cuff's tubing into the other ends of the dual air hose, and tighten connections to prevent air leaks. Keep the air hose away from the patient to avoid accidental dislodgment.
  • Squeeze all air from the cuff, and wrap the cuff loosely around the patient's arm or leg, allowing 2 fingerbreadths between cuff and arm or leg. Never apply the cuff to a limb that has an I.V. line in place. Position the cuff's “artery” arrow over the palpated brachial artery. Then secure the cuff for a snug fit.
Selecting parameters
  • When you turn on the monitor, it will default to a manual mode. (In this mode, you can obtain vital signs yourself before switching to the automatic mode.) Press the AUTO/MANUAL button to select the automatic mode. The monitor will give you baseline data for the pulse rate, systolic and diastolic pressures, and mean arterial pressure.
  • Compare your previous manual results with these baseline data. If they match, you're ready to set the alarm parameters. Press the SELECT button to blank out all displays except systolic pressure.
  • Use the HIGH and LOW limit buttons to set the specific parameters for systolic pressure. (These limits range from a high of 240 to a low of 0.) You'll also do this three more times for mean arterial pressure, pulse rate, and diastolic pressure. After you've set the parameters for diastolic pressure, press the SELECT button again to display all current data. Even if you forget to do this last step, the monitor will automatically display current data 10 seconds after you set the last parameters.
Collecting data
  • You also need to tell the monitor how often to obtain data. Press the SET button until you reach the desired time interval in minutes. If you've chosen the automatic mode, the monitor will display a default cycle time of 3 minutes. You can override the default cycle time to set the interval you prefer.
  • You can obtain a set of vital signs at any time by pressing the START button. Also, pressing the CANCEL button will stop the interval and deflate the cuff. You can retrieve stored data by pressing the PRIOR DATA button. The monitor will display the last data obtained along with the time elapsed since then. Scrolling backward, you can retrieve data from the previous 99 minutes.

Dementia Nursing Diagnosis, Outcome, Interventions and Evaluation

Dementia Nursing Diagnosis

Impaired Verbal Communication related to cerebral impairment as demonstrated by altered memory, judgment, and word finding

Dementia Nursing Outcome :
  • Demonstrate congruent verbal and nonverbal communication.

Dementia Nursing Interventions
  • Speak slowly and use short, simple words and phrases.
  • Consistently identify yourself, and address the person by name at each meeting.
  • Focus on one piece of information at a time. Review what has been discussed with patient.
  • If patient has vision or hearing disturbances, have him wear prescription eyeglasses and/or a hearing device.
  • Keep environment well lit.
  • Use clocks, calendars, and familiar personal effects in the patient’s view.
  • If patient becomes verbally aggressive, identify and acknowledge feelings.
  • If patient becomes aggressive, shift the topic to a safer, more familiar one.
  • If patient becomes delusional, acknowledge feelings and reinforce reality. Do not attempt to challenge the content of the delusion.
Dementia Nursing Evaluation :
  • Demonstrates decreased anxiety and increased feelings of security in supportive environment

Dementia Treatment

Dementia Treatment

  • Treatment is generally community focused; the goal of treatment is to maintain the quality of life as long as possible despite the progressive nature of the disease. Effective treatment is based on:
    • Diagnosis of primary illness and concurrent psychiatric disorders
    • Assessment of auditory and visual impairment
    • Measurement of the degree, nature, and progression of cognitive deficits
    • Assessment of functional capacity and ability for self-care
    • Family and social system assessment
  • Environmental strategies in order to assist in maintaining the safety and functional abilities of the patient as long as possible.
  • Pharmacologic therapy used for the person with DAT is directed toward the use of anticholinesterase drugs to slow the progression of the disorder by increasing the relative amount of acetylcholine. Available drugs include donepezil (Aricept), galantamine (Reminyl), rivastigmine (Exelon) and tacrine (Cognex). An NMDA-receptor antagonist memantine (Namenda) may be provided in an attempt to improve cognition. Other drugs may be used for behavioral control and symptom reduction.
    • Agitation management: neuroleptic drugs
    • Psychosis: neuroleptic drugs
    • Depression: antidepressants, ECT
  • Hypertension management in vascular dementia is important in reducing the severity of symptoms.
  • Family education is a treatment strategy because statistics indicate that family caregivers provide care for patients with DAT in 7 out of 10 cases. The family and the treatment team collaborate in the delivery of care.

Complications for dementia

  • Without accurate diagnosis and treatment, secondary dementias may become permanent.
  • Falls with serious orthopedic or cerebral injuries.
  • Self-inflicted injuries.
  • Aggression or violence toward self, others, or property.
  • Wandering events, in which the person can get lost and potentially suffer exposure, hypothermia, injury, and even death.
  • Serious depression is demonstrated in caregivers who receive inadequate support.
  • Caregiver stress and burden may result in patient neglect or abuse.

Osteoarthritis - Pain (acute / chronic) Nursing Diagnosis and Intervention

Nursing Diagnosis and Intervention for Osteoarthritis


Osteoarthritis is known as degenerative joint disease or osteoartrosis (even if there is inflammation) is a joint disorder that most commonly found and often lead to disability.

Osteoarthritis is the arthritis as a cause of disability groups who occupied the first order and will increase with increasing age, the disease is rare below the age of 46 years but more often found at the age of 60 years. Factors age and sex showed a difference frequency.


Osteoarthritis is classified into:
  • Type of primary (idiopathic) without the occurrence or previous illnesses associated with osteoarthritis
  • Type of secondary as a result of trauma, infection and had a fracture.


Degenerative joint disease is a chronic disease, not inflamed, and slowly progressive, as if it is a process of aging, deteriorated joints and cartilage degeneration is accompanied by the growth of new bone at the joint edge.

The process of degeneration is caused by chondrocyte-solving process which is an important element of joint cartilage. Solving allegedly initiated by certain biomechanical stress. Lysosomal enzyme causes dipecahnya expenditure polysaccharide matrix proteins that form around the chondrocytes resulting in cartilage damage. The joints most often affected are the joints that must bear weight, like knee and hip spine. Interfalanga distal joints and proksimasi.
Osteoarthritis in some instances will result in limited motion. This is caused by the pain suffered by or caused by narrowing of joint space or less use of these joints.

Degenerative changes that result because of certain events such as joint injuries and joint infection congenital deformities other arthritic diseases will cause trauma to the cartilage that are intrinsic and extrinsic ligaments causing existing fractures or joints metabolic changes that ultimately result in cartilage have erosion and destruction, the bones become thicker and there was narrowing of the joint cavity that causes pain, leg kripitasi, deformity, presence of hypertrophy or nodules.

Osteoarthritis Nursing Diagnosis

Pain (acute / chronic) related to tissue distension by fluid accumulation / inflammation process, distruksi joints.

Osteoarthritis Nursing Interventions:

Assess complaints of pain; note the location and intensity of pain (scale 0-10). Write down the factors that accelerate and signs of non-verbal pain

Give mat / hard mattress, small pillow. Elevate the bed according to current needs of the client to rest / sleep.

Help clients take a comfortable position when sleeping or sitting in a chair. Depth of bed rest as indicated.

Monitor the use of pillows.

Encourage clients to frequently change positions.

Help clients to a warm bath at the time of waking.

Help clients to warm compresses on the sore joints several times a day.

Monitor temperature compress.

Give a gentle massage.

Encourage the use of stress management techniques such as progressive relaxation bio-feedback therapeutic touch, visualization, self hypnosis imagination guidance and control of breath.

Engage in activities of entertainment that is appropriate for individual situations.

Give the drug prior to activity / exercise that is planned as directed.

Help clients with a physical therapist.

The expected outcome / evaluation criteria

Pain showed reduced or controlled

Looks relaxed, can rest, sleep and participate in activities according to ability.

Following the therapy program.

Using the skills of relaxation and entertainment activities into a program of pain control.

Nursing Diagnosis - Interventions for Excess Fluid Volume

Nursing Diagnosis - Interventions for Excess Fluid Volume

Nursing Diagnosis Excess Fluid Volume

related to decreased glomerular filtration rate (decrease in cardiac output) and the retention of sodium / water.

Characterized by:
Orthopnea, S3 heart sound, oliguria, edema, weight gain, hypertension, respiratory distress, abnormal heart sounds.

Objectives / evaluation criteria:
Clients will be demonstrating the stable fluid volume with the balance of inputs and expenditures, breath sounds clean / clear, vital signs within an acceptable range, stable weight and no edema, fluid restriction expressed understanding of the individual.

Nursing Interventions Excess Fluid Volume :
Monitor urine output, record the number and color of the time in which diuresis occurs.
Rational: Spending a little and concentrated urine may be due to decreased renal perfusion. Supine position so that helps diuresis of urine may be increased during bed rest.

Monitor / calculate the balance of income and expenditure for 24 hours.
Rational: diuretic therapy may be caused by a sudden loss of fluid / redundant (hypovolaemia), although edema / ascites is still there.

Keep sitting or bed rest with semifowler position during the acute phase.
Rationale: The position is increasing kidney filtration thus improving diuresis.

Monitor blood pressure and CVP (if any).
Rational: Hypertension and increased CVP indicates fluid overload and may indicate an increase in pulmonary congestion, heart failure.

Assess bowel sounds. Record complaints of anorexia, nausea, abdominal distension and constipation.
Rational: visceral congestion can interfere with the function of gastric / intestinal tract.

Administration of drugs as indicated (collaboration)
Consult with the dietitian.
Rational: to provide an acceptable diet that meets client needs calories in sodium restriction.

Nursing Diagnosis Activity Intolerance related to imbalance between oxygen supply - Congestive Heart Failure

Activity intolerance related to imbalance between oxygen supply, general weakness, long bed rest / immobilization.

Characterized by:
Weakness, fatigue, changes in vital signs, presence of dysrhythmias, dyspnea, pallor, sweating.

Objectives / evaluation criteria:
Clients will participate in desired activities, meet self-care, achieving increased tolerance activity can be measured, evidenced by decreased weakness and fatigue.

Nursing Diagnosis - Intervention - Activity Intolerance:
Check vital signs before and immediately after activity, especially when the client is using vasodilators, diuretics and beta blockers.
Rational: orthostatic hypotension may occur with activity because the effects of the drug (vasodilation), the displacement of fluid (diuretics) or influence cardiac function.

Record the cardiopulmonary response to activity, noted tachycardia, dysrhythmias, dyspnea sweaty and pale.
Rational: Decrease / inability of the myocardium to increase the volume of activity during dpat sekuncup cause an immediate increase heart rate and oxygen demand is also increasing fatigue and weakness.

Evaluation of an increase in activity intolerance.
Rational: to show an increase in cardiac decompensation rather than excess activity.

Implementation of cardiac rehabilitation programs / activities (collaboration) Rational: a gradual increase in activity to avoid cardiac work / oxygen consumption is excessive. Strengthening and improvement of cardiac function under stress, if cardiac function can not be improved again.

Nursing Diagnosis Activity Intolerance related to imbalance between oxygen supply - Congestive Heart Failure

Activity Intolerance related to Imbalance Oxygen Supply - COPD Nursing Diagnosis

COPD Nursing Diagnosis

Activity intolerance
related to imbalance between oxygen supply with demand.

Purpose: Shows the progress at a higher level of activity possible.

Nursing Interventions for Activity Intolerance - COPD:
  1. Assess the individual response to the activity; pulse, blood pressure, breathing.
  2. Measure vital signs immediately after the activity, rest your client for 3 minutes then measuring the vital signs again.
  3. Support the patient in establishing a regular exercise using a treadmill and exercycle, walking or other exercise appropriate, such as walking slowly.
  4. Assess the level of the last patient function and develop training plans based on the status of basic functions.
  5. Suggest consultation with a physical therapist to determine the specific training program on the ability of the patient.
  6. Provide oxygen as represented is required before and during running activity just in case.
  7. Increase activity gradually; a client who was bed rest or long range of motion began to perform at least 2 times a day.
  8. Increase tolerance to the activity by encouraging clients to do the activity more slowly, or a shorter time, with more rest or with a lot of help.
  9. Gradually increase exercise tolerance by increasing the time out of bed every day until 15 minutes 3 ​​times a day.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Nursing Assessment

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) refers to chronic lung disorders that result in blocked air flow in the lungs. The two main COPD disorders are emphysema and chronic bronchitis, the most common causes of respiratory failure. Emphysema occurs when the walls between the lung's air sacs become weakened and collapse. Damage from COPD is usually permanent and irreversible.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Nursing Assessment

The assessment includes information about the symptoms last and previous disease manifestations. Here are some guidelines to get the data question the health history of the disease process:
  1. How long patients have trouble breathing?
  2. Does the activity increase of dyspnea?
  3. How far are limitations on the patient's activity tolerance?
  4. When patients complain of fatigue and shortness of breath most?
  5. Is eating and sleeping habits are affected?
  6. History of smoking?
  7. The drugs used each day?
  8. The drugs used in acute attacks?
  9. What is known about the condition and the patient's illness?

Additional data collected through observation and examination as follows:
  1. Patient's pulse rate and breathing?
  2. Is the same breathing without effort?
  3. Is there a contraction of abdominal muscles during inspiration?
  4. Is there any use of accessory respiratory muscles during breathing?
  5. Barrel chest?
  6. Does seem cyanosis?
  7. Is there a cough?
  8. Is there peripheral edema?
  9. Are the neck veins appear dilated?
  10. What color, amount and consistency of sputum of patients?
  11. How is the status of the patient sensorium?
  12. Is there an increase in stupor? Anxiety?

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Drugs, Society, and Human Behavior

Drugs, Society, and Human Behavior

Designed for the introduction to drugs and substance abuse course as taught in departments of health education, psychology, biology, sociology, and criminal justice, this full-color market-leading text provides the latest information on drug use and its effects on society and human behavior. For over thirty years, instructors and students have relied on it to examine drugs and drug use from a variety of perspectives—in terms of behavioral, pharmacological, historical, social, legal, and clinical points of view.

About the Author
Dr. Carl Hart is an Associate Professor in both the Departments of Psychiatry and Psychology at Columbia University and is also a Research Scientist in the Division of Substance Abuse at the New York State Psychiatric Institute. A major focus of Dr. Hart’s research is to understand the complex interactions between neurobiological and environmental factors that mediate and modulate the actions of drugs of abuse, including drug-taking behavior and cognitive performance. Dr. Hart’s research has been supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse for the past several years. In addition to his substantial research responsibilities, Dr. Hart teaches an undergraduate Drugs and Behavior course and was recently awarded Columbia University's highest teaching award.

Charles Ksir received his bachelor's degree in Psychology from the University of Texas at Austin, and his Ph.D. from Indiana University in Bloomington. Following his postdoctoral training in Neurobiology at the Worcester Foundation in Massachusetts, he began a 34-year career in teaching and research at the University of Wyoming, where he also served in a variety of administrative positions. Now a professor emeritus, he focuses his efforts on teaching and textbook writing. He has taught the psychology course Drugs and Behavior to over three thousand students since 1972, and has received several teaching awards.

After graduating from Cornell University and serving a brief stint in the U.S. Army, Oakley Ray became a full-time student at the University of Pittsburgh, training to be a clinical psychologist. He completed his clinical training and moved to animal research even before he received his Ph.D. Working in the behavioral research laboratory of Larry Stein, he learned all the techniques and technologies of brain stimulation and biochemistry relevant to the expanding field of neuropsychopharmacology. Stein’s laboratory was part of a multidisciplinary research facility so Oakley Ray learned brain anatomy, surgery, biochemistry, and pharmacology. When Larry Stein moved on, Oakley Ray took over the lab, expanded it, and established it as an independent research laboratory. He continued working in Pittsburgh as an Associate Professor at the University of Pittsburgh and at Chatham College while still directing the research laboratory in the Veterans Administration Hospital at Leech Farm Road in Pittsburgh.
Following his move to Nashville to be Professor in Psychology and Pharmacology, and later in Psychiatry, as well as the Chief of the Psychology Program at the Nashville Veteran’s Administration Hospital, he became more involved in human psychopharmacology. He later served as the Executive Secretary of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology and the International College of Neuropsychopharmacology.

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Drugs, Society, and Human Behavior

Ineffective Airway Clearance - Nursing Diagnosis and Interventions for Pneumonia

Pneumonia is a general term that refers to an infection of the lungs, which can be caused by a variety of microorganisms, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites.

Most cases of pneumonia are caused by viruses, including adenoviruses, rhinovirus, influenza virus (flu), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and parainfluenza virus (which causes croup).

Often, pneumonia begins after an upper respiratory tract infection (an infection of the nose and throat), with symptoms of pneumonia beginning after 2 or 3 days of a cold or sore throat.

Nursing Diagnosis for Pneumonia

Ineffective airway clearance related to the tracheal bronchial inflammation, increased sputum production

characterized by:
  • Changes in frequency, depth of respiration
  • Abnormal breath sounds
  • Dyspnea, cyanosis
  • Effective or ineffective cough with / without sputum production.
Effective airway,

with the following criteria:
  • effective cough
  • breath normal
  • Breath sounds clean

Nursing Interventions and Rational - Ineffective Airway Clearance for Pneumonia

Assess the frequency / depth of breathing and chest movement
Rational: tachypnea, shallow breathing and asymmetrical chest movement often occurs because of discomfort.

Auscultation of lung area, note area one time there was a decrease of air flow and breath sounds
Rational: decrease in blood flow occurred in the area of ​​consolidation with fluid.

Let the effective coughing techniques
Rational: cough is a natural airway clearance mechanisms to maintain a patent airway.

Suction as indicated
Rational: to stimulate coughing or clearing the airway mechanical voice on the factors that are not able to perform effectively as a cough or a decreased level of consciousness.

Give fluids at least
Rational: liquids (especially warm) mobilizing and removing secretions

Collaboration with physicians for drug delivery as indicated: mukolitik, ex.
Rational: a tool to reduce the mobilization of secretions with bronchial spasms, analgesic given to improve the cough by reducing the discomfort but should be used carefully, because it can reduce cough effort / suppress breathing.

Typhoid Fever Symptoms and Treatment

What are the symptoms of typhoid fever?

The incubation period is usually one to two weeks, and the duration of the illness is about four to six weeks. The patient experiences
  • poor appetite;
  • abdominal pain;
  • headaches;
  • generalized aches and pains;
  • fever, often up to 104 F;
  • lethargy (usually only if untreated);
  • intestinal bleeding or perforation (after two to three weeks of the disease);
  • diarrhea or constipation.
People with typhoid fever usually have a sustained fever as high as 103 F-104 F (39 C-40 C).

Chest congestion develops in many patients, and abdominal pain and discomfort are common. The fever becomes constant. Improvement occurs in the third and fourth week in those without complications. About 10% of patients have recurrent symptoms (relapse) after feeling better for one to two weeks. Relapses are actually more common in individuals treated with antibiotics.

What is the treatment for typhoid fever, and what is the prognosis?

Typhoid fever is treated with antibiotics that kill the Salmonella bacteria. Prior to the use of antibiotics, the fatality rate was 20%. Death occurred from overwhelming infection, pneumonia, intestinal bleeding, or intestinal perforation. With antibiotics and supportive care, mortality has been reduced to 1%-2%. With appropriate antibiotic therapy, there is usually improvement within one to two days and recovery within seven to 10 days.

Several antibiotics are effective for the treatment of typhoid fever. Chloramphenicol was the original drug of choice for many years. Because of rare serious side effects, chloramphenicol has been replaced by other effective antibiotics. The choice of antibiotics needs to be guided by identifying the geographic region where the organism was acquired and the results of cultures once available. (Certain strains from South America show a significant resistance to some antibiotics.) Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) is the most frequently used drug in the U.S. for nonpregnant patients. Ceftriaxone (Rocephin), an intramuscular injection medication, is an alternative for pregnant patients. Ampicillin (Omnipen, Polycillin, Principen) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim, Septra) are frequently prescribed antibiotics although resistance has been reported in recent years. If relapses occur, patients are retreated with antibiotics.

The carrier state, which occurs in 3%-5% of those infected, can be treated with prolonged antibiotics. Often, removal of the gallbladder, the site of chronic infection, will cure the carrier state.

Source :

Nursing Diagnosis for Glaucoma


is an eye disorder in which the optic nerve suffers damage, permanently damaging vision in the affected eye(s) and progressing to complete blindness if untreated. It is often, but not always, associated with increased pressure of the fluid in the eye (aqueous humour). The term 'ocular hypertension' is used for cases having constantly raised intraocular pressure (IOP) without any associated optic nerve damage. Conversely, the term 'normal' or 'low tension glaucoma' is suggested for the typical visual field defects when associated with a normal or low IOP.

The nerve damage involves loss of retinal ganglion cells in a characteristic pattern. There are many different subtypes of glaucoma, but they can all be considered a type of optic neuropathy. Raised intraocular pressure is a significant risk factor for developing glaucoma (above 21 mmHg or 2.8 kPa). One person may develop nerve damage at a relatively low pressure, while another person may have high eye pressure for years and yet never develop damage. Untreated glaucoma leads to permanent damage of the optic nerve and resultant visual field loss, which can progress to blindness.

Glaucoma Nursing Diagnosis

Nursing Diagnosis for Glaucoma



Nursing Interventions for Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

Pain Management Alleviation of pain or a reduction in pain to a level of comfort that is acceptable to the patient. Analgesic Administration Use of pharmacologic agents to reduce or eliminate pain. Environmental Management Comfort Manipulation of the patient’s surroundings forpromotion of optimal comfort

Teaching the patient of a teaching program about UTIs, how to prevent recurrent lower UTIs, and therapy.

Learning Facilitation: Promoting the ability to process and comprehend information. Learning Readiness Enhancement: Improving the ability and willingness to receive information

Sleep Enhancement to Facilitation of regular sleep/wake cycles. Simple Relaxation Therapy Use of techniques to encourage and elicit relaxation for the purpose of decreasing undesirable signs and symptoms such as pain, muscle tension, or anxiety. Environmental Management Manipulation of the patient’s surroundings for therapeutic benefit

Urinary Elimination Management Maintenance of an optimum urinary elimination pattern. Urinary Catheterization Insertion of a catheter into the bladder for temporary or permanent drainage of urine. Perineal Care Maintenance of perineal skin integrity and relief of perineal discomfort

Infection Protection to Prevention and early detection of infection in a patient at risk. Infection Control Minimizing the acquisition and transmission of infectious agents. Surveillance Purposeful and ongoing acquisition, interpretation, and synthesis of patient data for clinical decision making

Risk Identification Analysis of potential risk factors, determination of health risks, and prioritization of risk reduction strategies for an individual or group. Purposeful and ongoing collection and analysis of information about the patient and the environment for use in promoting and maintaining patient safety

Sexual Counseling Use of an interactive helping process focusing on the need to make adjustments to sexual practice or to coping with a sexual event/disorder. Teaching/Assisting individuals to understand physical and psychosocial dimensions of sexual growth and development.

Nanda Nursing Diagnosis for Schizophrenia


Schizophrenia is a chronic, severe, and disabling brain disorder that has affected people throughout history. About 1 percent of Americans have this illness.

People with the disorder may hear voices other people don’t hear. They may believe other people are reading their minds, controlling their thoughts, or plotting to harm them. This can terrify people with the illness and make them withdrawn or extremely agitated.

People with schizophrenia may not make sense when they talk. They may sit for hours without moving or talking. Sometimes people with schizophrenia seem perfectly fine until they talk about what they are really thinking.

Nursing Diagnosis For Schizophrenia

Bathing or hygiene self-care deficit
Disabled family coping
Disturbed body image
Disturbed personal identity
Disturbed sensory perception (auditory, visual, kinesthetic)
Disturbed sleep pattern
Disturbed thought processes
Dressing or grooming self-care deficit
Imbalanced nutrition: Less than body requirements
Impaired home maintenance
Impaired social interaction
Impaired verbal communication
Ineffective coping
Ineffective role performance
Risk for injury
Risk for other-directed violence
Risk for self-directed violence
Social isolation

Nursing Diagnosis For Schizophrenia

Maternal Myasthenia Gravis

Maternal myasthenia gravis: The presence of myasthenia gravis in a pregnant woman.

Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by fatigue and exhaustion of muscles. It is caused by a mistaken immune response to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChR), which are found in junctions between muscles and the nervous system. The body produces antibodies that attack these AChR receptors, preventing signals from reaching the muscles. Proof that the anti-AChR antibodies are responsible for myasthenia comes from the effect these antibodies can have on the unborn and the newborn.

Maternal myasthenia gravis: During pregnancy in a woman with myasthenia, the anti-AChR antibodies can cross the placenta and block the function of the fetal form of AChR leading to fetal paralysis. Fetal and neonatal death is a common consequence. Babies who survive often have arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (nonprogressive congenital contractures) due to lack of fetal muscle movement before birth. Transient signs of MG are seen in 10-15% of babies born to MG mothers. These problems are potentially preventable if the mother is effectively treated during pregnancy.

Treatment: There is currently no cure for myasthenia gravis, but today at least 90 percent of patients with MG survive. A number of treatments are available that help, including steroids and other immunosuppressive medications and cholinergic medications.

Reference: Polizzi A, Huson SM, Vincent A. Teratogen Update: Maternal Myasthenia Gravis as a Cause of Congenital Arthrogryposis. Teratology 62:332-341, 2000.

Questions about risk factors for disease - Chest Pain

Risk factors for heart disease
  • Smoking
  • High blood pressure
  • High cholesterol
  • Diabetes
  • Family history

Risk factors for pulmonary embolus (blood clot to the lung)

  • Prolonged inactivity such as bed rest, long car or airplane trips
  • Recent surgery
  • Fractures
  • Birth control pill use (particularly if the patient smokes cigarettes)
  • Cancer

Risk factors for aortic dissection
  • High blood pressure
  • Marfan syndrome
  • Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
  • Polycystic kidney disease
  • Cocaine use
  • Pregnancy

Questions the doctor may ask about Chest Pain

Questions the doctor may ask about chest pain

  • When did the pain start?

  • What is the quality of the pain?

  • How long does the pain last?

  • Does the pain come and go?

  • What makes the pain better?

  • What makes the pain worse?

  • Does the pain radiate somewhere (move to another area of the body)?

  • Has there been any preceding illness?

  • Has there been any trauma?

  • Have there been similar episodes of pain in the past?

Physical examination helps refine the differential diagnosis for Chest Pain

Physical examination helps refine the differential diagnosis. While chest pain may be the initial complaint, often the whole body needs to be examined. Example components of the physical exam may include:

Vital signs

  • Blood pressure (BP), pulse rate (PR), respiratory rate (RR), temperature, and

  • Oxygen saturation (O2 sat)

Head and neck

  • Looking for neck vein distension or bulging

  • Listening over the carotid arteries for bruits (abnormal sounds) ormurmurs

Chest wall

  • Palpate for rib or muscle tenderness

  • Look for rashes


  • Listen for abnormal lung sounds or decreased air entry


  • Listen for abnormal heart sounds, murmurs or rubs (a friction sound made by two rough surfaces rubbing against each other, which may be seen with inflammation of the heart lining, called pericarditis)

  • Listen for muffled heart tones


  • Palpate for tenderness or masses

  • Listen for bruits over the aorta


  • Feel for pulses

Treatment for Malignant Mesothelioma

Treatment for Malignant Mesothelioma

Treatment for malignant mesothelioma has not been found, but the people affected by this disease still prefer to undergo treatment with a mixture of methods or participate in various clinical trials. Various kinds of mesotheliomatreatment techniques regularly performed with surgical procedures, drug therapy, and radiation therapy.

Although this treatment is most often found, you can find other treatment options that are now growing in popularity. Several treatment options, which are gene therapy, immunotherapy, and photodynamic therapy.

The different surgical procedures performed on patients with malignantmesothelioma there are 3 types of palliative surgical procedures, surgicalprocedures diagnostic, curative surgical procedure. Palliative surgery aimed at reducing the symptoms and eliminate all cancer cells. However, this type of operation is not recommended.

The purpose of curative surgery is to remove as much mesothelioma cancer, hoping this type of therapy to fully heal. Curative surgery is usually followed by chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

Diagnostic surgical approach intended to do with finding facts or not the existence of cancer in patients. This procedure is an addition that can help identify where the location of the cancer, if found, the diagnosis of mesothelioma is usually still in the form of non-invasive.

Chemotherapy drug given intravenously with the aim to destroy cancerous tissue.Mesothelioma Cancer cells grow very fast and chemotherapy would be more effective if given promptly.

Radiation therapy is done by comparing drug therapies, which aim to destroy cancerous tissue and limit the spread of cancer cells are much as possible. This is also called "ionizing radiation" and is usually used after surgery. The mechanism works with palliative care are also aimed to relieve pain caused by disease.

Photodynamic therapy is usually used if the cancer is malignant mesothelioma is still small and less effective for metastasis.Therapyi photodynamic cancer therapy requires intravenous drug that cancer cells will be killed due to certain vulnerable.

This gene treatment is still experimental d? N requires a person to be infected by an h? virus that will make a change genetically. The virus gets into the cause of mesothelioma cancer cell protein production. Some time after the virus infects a person who has changed genetically, will be given a chemotherapy drug that does not damage normal cells, but was able to kill cancer cells.

Immunotherapy is given under on the immune system of individuals trying to destroy cancer cells. With the Active Immunotherapy of individuals, malignantmesothelioma cells to be removed which is then used to produce vaccines. The person who injected the vaccine, will have an immune system capable of recognizing "malignant mesothelioma cell vaccine" as a hazardous substance, so that the cancer cell itself is known as hazardous substances.

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